Short answer Essaysâ€“ To receive full credit, ALL parts of a question must be addressed.
1.) Describe naturalistic observation and participant observation. Identify one problem that is unique to each of these methodologies AND one problem that is shared by both methodologies.
2.) Explain why causal conclusions can be drawn from experimental studies, but not from correlational studies. Be certain to work â€œbidirectionalityâ€ and â€œthird variableâ€ into your response.
3.) Describe between-subjects designs and within-subject designs. Explain the control problems that are unique to each of these designs and how these problems may be corrected.
4.) Explain why the presence of confounds (i.e., extraneous variables) affects the internal validity of experimental studies.