Leadership roles and management functions in nursing Theory and application by Bessie Marquis and Carol Huston.

 

Chapter 8 in Leadership roles and management functions in nursing: Theory and application by Bessie Marquis and Carol Huston.
here are a few key concepts of the chapter:
Change should not be viewed as a threat but as a challenge and a chance to do something new and innovative.
Change should be implemented only for good reason.
Because change disrupts the homeostasis or balance of the group, resistance should be expected as a natural part of the change process.
The level of resistance to change generally depends on the type of change proposed. Technological changes encounter less resistance than changes that are perceived as social or that are contrary to established customs or norms.
Perhaps the greatest factors contributing to the resistance encountered with change is a lack of trust between the employee and the manager or the employee and the organization.
It is much easier to change a person’s behavior than it is to change an entire group’s behavior. It is also easier to change knowledge levels than attitudes.
Change should be planned and thus implemented gradually, not sporadically or suddenly.
Those who may be affected by a change should be involved in planning for it. Likewise, workers should thoroughly understand the change and its effect on them.
The feeling of control is critical to thriving in a changing environment.
Friends, family, and colleagues should be used as a network of support during change.
The successful change agent has the leadership skills of problem solving and decision making and has good interpersonal skills.
In contrast to planned change, change by drift is unplanned or accidental.
Historically, many of the changes that have occurred in nursing or have affected the profession at the results of change by drift.
People maintain status quo or equilibrium when both driving and restraining forces operating within any field simultaneously occur. For change to happen, this balance of driving forces must be altered.

4 mins ago
here is an example
Title of Paper
The opening paragraph of your paper will provide your readers with their initial impressions of your argument, your writing style, and the overall quality of your work. A vague, disorganized, error-filled, off-the-wall, or boring introduction will probably create a negative impression. On the other hand, a concise, engaging, and well-written introduction will start your readers off thinking highly of you, your analytical skills, your writing, and your paper.Your introduction is an important road map for the rest of your paper. Your introduction conveys a lot of information to your readers. You can let them know what your topic is, why it is important, and how you plan to proceed with your discussion. In many academic disciplines, your introduction should contain a summary of your problem statement. Your introduction should also give the reader a sense of the kinds of information you will use to make that argument and the general organization of the paragraphs and pages that will follow. After reading your introduction, your readers should not have any major surprises in store when they read the main body of your paper.
Ideally, your introduction will make your readers want to read your paper. The introduction should capture your readers? interest, making them want to read the rest of your paper. Opening with a compelling story, an interesting question, or a vivid example can get your readers to see why your topic matters and serve as an invitation for them to join you for an engaging intellectual conversation (remember, though, that these strategies may not be suitable for all papers and disciplines). Item must be referenced using graduate level reference citations/references.
The purpose statement is written after completion of the introductory paragraph.A purpose statement is a declarative sentence which summarizes the specific topic and goals of a document. It is typically included in the introduction to give the reader an accurate, concrete understanding what the document will cover and what he/she can gain from reading it. To be effective, a statement of purpose should be:
Specific and precise – not general, broad or obscure
Concise – one or two sentences
Clear – not vague, ambiguous or confusing
Goal-oriented – stated in terms of desired outcomes
Some common introductory phrases for purpose statements include:
“The purpose of this paper/letter/document is to…”
“In this paper, I will describe/explain/review/etc. the…”
“My reason for writing is to…”
“This paper will discuss the…”
“The purpose of this paper is twofold: to ___ and ___”
Title of the Problem
The next section of the paper is the problem.What is a problem statement? A problem statement is a clear description of the issue(s), it includes a vision, issue statement, and method used to solve the problem. The 5 ‘W’s can be used to spark the discussion about the problem. A problem statement expresses the words that will be used to keep the effort focused and it should represent a solveable problem.
How do you write a problem statement?Since a problem statement is a clear concise description of the issue that needs to be address by a problem solving team it must be used to center and focus the team at the beginning, keep the team on track during the effort, and is used to validate that the effort delivered an outcome that solves the problem statement.A problem statement has a specific form. First it is the vision ? what does the world look like if we solve the problem? Then, one or two sentences that describe the problem using specific issues. It is not a lack of solution statement.
To actually write the problem statement, if you follow the format below the problem statement will allow you to be focused on a specific topic rather than broad and spending much time in research and writing.
You will formulate the problem statement using the 5 W’s ? who what, where, when and why!You have used that throughout your life, but not it is time to use the 5W’s to write a concise problem statement.Here are the definitions for the items you will write in your problem statement:
Who ? who does the problem affect?Specific groups, organizations, customers, etc.
What ? what are the boundaries of the problem, e.g. organizational, work flow, geographic, customer, segments, etc?What is the issue? What is the impact of the issue?What impact is the issue causing?What will happen when it is fixed?What could happen if we didn’t solve the problem?
When ? when does the issue occur?When does it need to be fixed?
Where ? where is the issue occurring?Only in certain locations, processes, products, etc.
Why ? What is it important that we fix the problem?What impact does it have on the business or customer?What impact does it have on all stakeholders e.g. employees, suppliers, customers, shareholders, etc.
Each of the answers will help to zero in on the specific issue(s) and frame the problem statement.Your problem statement should be solveable. That is, it should take a reasonable amount of time to formulate try and deploy a potential solution.
Realistic Change
In this section you are going to describe a specific, realistic change that could be made to address the issue.Remember to stay focused on the problem you have identified above.Reference all concrete statements.
Mission, Vision, and Values
Summarize how the change would align with the organization?s mission.You must lay the groundwork which includes the mission statement and references.
Summarize how the change would align with the organization’s vision.You may lay the groundwork which includes the vision statement and references.
Summarize how the change would align with the organization’s values. You must lay the groundwork which includes the values of the organization with references.
Relevant Professional Standards
How will the change align with relevant professional standards?Summarize and include the organizations, regulatory agencies, licensing boards, certifying and credentialing organizations which provide professional standards to the nurses and impact the identified problem.Remember to validate the information with reference citations.
Change Model
Identify a change model or strategy to guide your planning for implementing the change. Provide a rationale for your selection.Remember to review the information in the classroom on the model that is recommended for this paper.Reference the change model.
Steps to Facilitate Change
Outline the steps that you and/or others would follow to facilitate the change. Align these steps to your selected change model or strategy. Remember to reference the change model or strategy and other concrete and pertinent information.
Change Agent(s)
Explain who would be involved in initiating and managing this change. Describe the skills and characteristics that would be necessary to facilitate the change effort.Research what characteristics and skills are needed to be a change agent.Reference all required information.
Summary
Your summary is your chance to have the last word on the subject. The summary allows you to have the final say on the issues you have raised in your paper, to synthesize your thoughts, to demonstrate the importance of your ideas, and to propel your reader to a new view of the subject. It is also your opportunity to make a good final impression and to end on a positive note.Your summary can go beyond the confines of the assignment. This section pushes beyond the boundaries of the prompt and allows you to consider broader issues, make new connections, and elaborate on the significance of your findings. You should make your readers glad they read your paper, and gives your reader something to take away that will help them see things differently or appreciate your topic in personally relevant ways. It can suggest broader implications that will not only interest your reader, but also enrich your reader?s life in some way. It is your gift to the reader.

References
All references provided in the body of the paper, and any items you used to formulate your opinions, etc must be cited here and in this format.
The grading rubric for references is posted below.Remember the need for credible and outside sources to support your point of view.
20 to 20 points.Demonstrates and applies exceptional support of major points and integrates 2 or more credible outside sources, in addition to 3?4 course resources to support point of view.
15 to 19 points.Demonstrates and applies exceptional support of major points and integrates 2 or more credible outside sources, in addition to 3?4 course resources to support point of view.
10 to 14 points.Integrates specific information from 1 credible outside resource and 3?4 course resources to support major points and point of view.
3 to 9 points.Minimally includes and integrates specific information from 2?3 resources to support major points and point of view.
0 to 2 points.Includes and integrates specific information from 0?1 resource to support major points and point of view

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